In lateEckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [ 17 ]. To illustrate with a quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [ 34 ], "We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1, simple trajectories.
These are not independent alternatives: Barrier on the London Underground Baker Street, from memorypreventing people running down stairs directly onto the track.
Changes in material properties can involve drawing attention to particular behaviour e. Harvey,or making it more or less comfortable to do an activity e.
Often combining positioning and material properties, the effect of different seating types and layouts on behaviour comprises a significant area of study in itself, with, for example, work by SteinzorHearnSommer and Koneya helping to establish patterns of likely interaction between people occurring with arrangements of chairs around tables, and overall room layouts in classrooms and mental hospitals.
Hall, provides a treatment of personal space, its effects on behaviour, and its significance in different physical spaces as well as in different cultures. If, however, one sees man surrounded by a series of invisible bubbles which have measurable dimensions, architecture can be seen in a new light.
It is then possible to conceive that people can be cramped by the spaces in which they have to live and work. Stewart Brand, How Buildings Learn,p. Anthony Royal in J. A desire path or cowpath is forming across this grass area in the John Crank memorial garden, Brunel University… One emergent behaviour-related concept arising from architecture and planning which has also found application in human-computer interaction is the idea of desire lines, desire paths or cowpaths.
In either sense, desire lines along with use-marks Burns, could perhaps, using economic terminology, be seen as a form of revealed user preference Beshears et al, or at least revealed choice, with a substantial normative quality. Simply plant grass seed and let the erosion inform you about where the paths need to be.
Stories abound of university campuses being constructed without any pathways to them. Particularly with websites, analytics software can take the place of the worn grass, and in the process reveal extra data such as demographic information about users, and more about their actual desires or intention in engaging in the process e.
The counter-argument is that blindly paving cowpaths can enshrine inefficient behaviours in the longer-term, locking users and organisations into particular ways of doing things which were never optimal in the first place Arace, —form freezing function, to paraphrase Stewart Brandp.
From the point of view of influencing behaviour rather than simply reflecting it, the principle of paving the cowpaths could be applied strategically: The architecture embodied a political message: There are people higher than you, and they can watch you, follow you—and, theoretically, you can join them, become one of them.
In this latter context, Segal and Weizmanp. Along perhaps similar lines, Stewart Brandp.
Ittelson et alp. One recurring pattern in political buildings is the intentional use of something similar to what Alexander et alp.
Nicoletta looks at the use of architecture to exert social control in Shaker dwelling houses, e. City layouts have been used strategically to try to prevent disorder and make it easier to put down. Legibility affords measurement and standardisation, and these from Domesday Book to the standardisation of surnames, to biometric IDs afford modelling, regulation and control.
Drawing on HackingScottp. If one could reshape nature to design a more suitable forest, why not reshape society to create a more suitable population? However, Joerges questions details of the intentionality involved, suggesting that the story as presented by Winner is more of a parable Gillespie,p.
Nevertheless, Flintp. My job is to create an environment which will bring in more ABC1s. Similar measures may be installed by members of the public to defend their own properties: Some of the ways of achieving these species of space will be familiar from other examples discussed in this thesis, particularly prickly space.
Prikka stripsa popular brand of add-on DIY plastic spikes for your wall. There should be no open access from the front to the rear of a house. One point to which Katyal repeatedly returns is the concept of architectural solutions as entities which subtly reinforce or embody social norms desirable ones, from the point of view of law enforcement rather than necessarily enforce them:This document gives a chronology of computing at Columbia University, as best I can piece it together, written mainly in Jan-Feb , updated periodically since then (time of last update listed above).
Research on Social Network Sites (last updated: October 29, ) (updates w/ complete citation and links should be sent to zephoria [@] srmvision.com). This document gives a chronology of computing at Columbia University, as best I can piece it together, written mainly in Jan-Feb , updated periodically since then (time of last update listed above).
Title Authors Published Abstract Publication Details; Easy Email Encryption with Easy Key Management John S.
Koh, Steven M. Bellovin, Jason Nieh. Description The course is designed to give the student an in-depth understanding of the soil as a three-phase system (solid, liquid, gas). A basic knowledge of soil . Faculty Description. The Faculty of Engineering offers doctoral and master’s degrees in Electronic Systems Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Systems Engineering, Industrial Systems Engineering, and Petroleum Systems Engineering.