The Andean Highland dwellers were mostly Incas, found in greatest numbers in Peru.
Quechua people in Conchucos DistrictPeru Anthropological and genetic evidence indicates that most of the original population of the Americas descended from migrants from North Asia Siberia who entered North America across the Bering Strait in at least three separate waves.
DNA analysis has shown that most of those resident in Peru in were descended from the first wave of Asian migrants, who are theorized, but not proven conclusively, to have crossed Beringia at the end of the last glacial period during the Upper Paleolithicaround 12, BCE.
Migrants from that first wave are thought to have reached Peru in the 6th millennium BCEprobably entering the Amazon basin from the northwest.
The Norte Chico civilization of Peru is the oldest known civilization in the Americas and one of the six sites where civilization, including the development of agriculture and government, separately originated in the ancient world.
Permitted Indians and Popular Music in Contemporary Peru: The Politics and Poetics of Indigenous Performativity. Ethnomusicology 55/ Mediating Sentiment and Shaping Publics: Recording Practice and the Articulation of Social Change in Andean Lima. Popular Music and Society 33/ -Cuzco (now Peru) became the core area of South America's greatest indigenous empire, that of the Inca. Inca -Brazil now has South America's largest black population as well as scattered among pockets of moderate elevation in the Andean highlands. Inca, South American Indians who, at the time of the Spanish conquest in , ruled an empire that extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from the northern border of modern Ecuador to the Maule River in central Chile.
The peoples had different social and organizational structures, and distinct languages and cultures. These spread by contact across the New World by indigenous peoples along trading routes, often years ahead of direct contact with the invaders.
As the natives have no natural immunitythey suffered high fatalities in epidemics of the new diseases.
Later more people died because of the harsh treatment of the conquerors: Many indigenous people refused to be enslaved, retreating into the backlands, or if captured, committing suicide.
Intermarriage[ edit ] From the earliest years, Spanish soldiers and colonists intermarried with the indigenous women. The Spanish officers and elite married into the Inca elite, and other matches were made among other classes.
A sizeable portion of the Peruvian population is mestizoof indigenous and European ancestry, speaking Spanish, generally Roman Catholic, and assimilated as the majority culture.
In the late 19th century, major planters in Peru, particularly in the northern plantations, and in Cuba, recruited thousands of mostly male Chinese immigrants as laborers, referred to as " coolies.
Typically the indigenous women had come from Andean and coastal areas to work in the cities. Chinese men favored marriage with them over unions with African Peruvian women.
Matchmakers sometimes arranged for mass communal marriages among a group of young Peruvian women and a new group of Chinese coolies. They were paid a deposit to recruit women from the Andean villages for such marriages. It also reported that Peruvian women sought Chinese men as husbands, considering them to be a "catch" and a "model husband, hard-working, affectionate, faithful and obedient" and "handy to have in the house".
As adults, injerto women were preferred by Chinese men as spouses, as they had shared ancestry. He claimed this mixing was causing the Chinese to suffer from "progressive degeneration.
These indigenous highlanders view intercultural efforts as an imposition of "disadvantageous educational changes" blocking their economic and social advancement, historically seen as only possible through learning to read and write Spanish.
But, on 6 December, Congress passed a law cancelling the executive decree.The similarities between the societies found in Brazil and those found in the Andean Highlands are relatively few. The Andean Highland dwellers were mostly Incas, found in were developed along the Atlantic coast of Brazil and the indigenous people of Brazil were forced into working there.
In the Andean highlands the fertility rate was and in the eastern lowlands in comparison to the average non- indigenous rate of (Encuesta Nacional Demográfica y de Salud (ENDSA), ).
Andean highlands (altiplano) and central valleys (valles) form the majority of the indigenous population; the Quechua represent 31% and the Aymara 25% of .
Quechua and Aymara speakers comprise the two major indigenous groups of the Andean highlands. Quechua speakers are in the majority and are located throughout the Andean region.
Aymara communities are located around Lake Titicaca in Peru and Bolivia, and further to . Indigenous peoples in Peru, Indigenous peoples in Colombia, Indigenous peoples in Bolivia Indigenous peoples in Ecuador, also Native Ecuadorians or Native Americans, are the groups of people who were present in what became Ecuador before the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The similarities between the societies found in Brazil and those found in the Andean Highlands are relatively few. The Andean Highland dwellers were mostly Incas, found in greatest numbers in Peru.
The inhabitants of Brazil were mainly concentrated around the Amazon River Basin area.