Organismic trait designed to solve an ancestral problem s. Shows complexity, special "design", functionality Adaptation that has been "re-purposed" to solve a different adaptive problem. Williams suggested that an "adaptation is a special and onerous concept that should only be used where it is really necessary. Obligate and facultative adaptations[ edit ] A question that may be asked about an adaptation is whether it is generally obligate relatively robust in the face of typical environmental variation or facultative sensitive to typical environmental variation.
Saul McLeodupdated There are various approaches in contemporary psychology. An approach is a perspective i. There may be several different theories within an approach, but they all share these common assumptions. You may wonder why there are so many different psychology perspectives and whether one approach is correct and others wrong.
Most psychologists would agree that no one perspective is correct, although in the past, in the early days of psychology, the behaviorist would have said their perspective was the only truly scientific one.
Each perspective has its strengths and weaknesses, and brings something different to our understanding of human behavior. For this reason, it is important that psychology does have Phychology in perspective perspectives on the understanding and study of human and animal behavior.
Below is a summary of the six main psychological approaches sometimes called perspectives in psychology. Behaviorism is different from most other approaches because they view people and animals as controlled by their environment and specifically that we are the result of what we have learned from our environment.
Behaviorism is concerned with how environmental factors called stimuli affect observable behavior called the response. The behaviorist approach proposes two main processes whereby people learn from their environment: Classical conditioning involves learning by association, and operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behavior.
Though looking into natural reflexes and neutral stimuli he managed to condition dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell through repeated associated with the sound of the bell and food.
The principles of CC have been applied in many therapies.
These include systematic desensitization for phobias step-by-step exposed to a feared stimulus at once and aversion therapy. Skinner investigated operant conditioning of voluntary and involuntary behavior.
Therefore behavior occurs for a reason, and the three main behavior shaping techniques are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. Behaviorism also believes in scientific methodology e. Behaviorism rejects the idea that people have free will, and believes that the environment determines all behavior.
Behaviorism is the scientific study of observable behavior working on the basis that behavior can be reduced to learned S-R Stimulus-Response units. Behaviorism has been criticized in the way it under-estimates the complexity of human behavior. Many studies used animals which are hard to generalize to humans, and it cannot explain, for example, the speed in which we pick up language.
There must be biological factors involved. Freud believes that events in our childhood can have a significant impact on our behavior as adults.noun. 1. the capacity to observe items, occurrences, and ideas in realistic proportions and unions.
2. the capacity to perceive and understand relative position, size, and distance of items in a plane field as though they are 3-D. 3. the ability of someone to take into consideration and potentially understand the interpretations, outlooks, or actions of .
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. The biopsychosocial model is an integrated perspective toward understanding consciousness, behavior, and social interaction.
It assumes that any given behavior or mental process affects and is affected by. The polarizing issues in the world today require a new perspective. Each side must acknowledge that "we both may be right in some ways, and wrong in some others." Health.
Introduction to Learning Theory and Behavioral Psychology. Learning can be defined as the process leading to relatively permanent behavioral change or potential behavioral change.
In other words, as we learn, we alter the way we perceive our environment, the way we interpret the incoming stimuli, and therefore the way we interact, or behave.
Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the midth century, drawing on the philosophies of existentialism and phenomenology, as well as Eastern philosophy.
It adopts a holistic approach to human existence through investigations of concepts such as meaning, values, freedom, tragedy, personal . Psychological Perspectives for AP Psychology The one constant throughout the entire AP Psychology exam (and throughout the field of psychology as a whole) is that there are several different viewpoints, or perspectives, about how to think about and interpret human behavior.