This paper discusses the evolving SD paradigm, its protagonists, antagonists, successes and failures, especially local and regional applications in relation to the policies and practices of UN Organizations, the European Union and national governments, with an emphasis on the Northern Adriatic arm of the Mediterranean Sea. The model was developed through an exploratory study using a case study approach supported by an internal survey.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Sleep is a vital segment of life, however, the mechanisms of diet promoting sleep are unclear and are the focus of research.
Insomnia is a general sleep disorder and functional foods are known to play a key role in the prevention of insomnia. A number of studies have demonstrated that major insomnia risk factors in human being are less functional foods in dietary.
There are higher functional components in functional foods promoting sleep, including tryptophan, GABA, calcium, potassium, melatonin, pyridoxine, L-ornithine and hexadecanoic acid; but wake-promoting neurochemical factors include serotonin, noradrenalin, acetylcholine, histamine, orexin and so on.
The factors promoting sleep in human being are the functional foods include barley grass powder, whole grains, maca, panax, Lingzhi, asparagus powder, lettuce, cherry, kiwifruits, walnut, schisandra wine, and milk; Barley grass powder with higher GABA and calcium, as well as potassium is the most ideal functional food promoting sleep, however, the sleep duration for modern humans is associated with food structure of ancient humans.
In this review, we put forward possible mechanisms of functional components in foods promoting sleep. Although there is clear relevance between sleep and diet, their molecular mechanisms need to be studied further.
Bioactive component, dietary, functional food, human being, insomnia, molecular mechanisms, sleep promoting. Insomnia qualifies to be the world's most common sleep disorder affecting 2.
The pathogenetic mechanism of insomnia or agrypnia constitutes visceral thalamus degeneration familial insomniaautoantibodies blocking the voltage-gated potassium channels and GABAergic synapses down-regulated within the limbic system [ 2 ]. Dietary supplementation of tryptophan can stimulate serotonergic activity and promote sleep, whereas serotonin released into diencephalon and cerebrum might play a key inhibitory role in insomnia prevention [ 3 ].
Prolonged-release melatonin was approved in Europe for insomnia prevention, which suggest a beneficial role of sleep-wake cycle stabilization in the treatment of insomnia [ 4 ]. Benzodiazepines for rapidly modulate GABA signaling in central neurons are widely used in the treatment of a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions including anxiety, insomnia and epilepsy [ 5 ].
T-type calcium channels have been proposed as therapeutic targets for lots of diseases such as insomnia, epilepsy, pain, cancer and hypertension [ 7 ]. The immunoglobulin G targeting dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 is not only a regulatory subunit of neuronal Kv4. There are important role for Kv2.
The polyunsaturated fatty acids were associated with sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep REMS [ 10 ]. L-ornithine has the potential to improve sleep quality for fatigue [ 11 ].
The advantage of orexin antagonists is the promotion and maintenance of physiological sleep which should avoid hangover phenomena of approved treatments [ 12 ]. The robust REMS-inducing effect of melanin is likely related to the deactivation of monoaminergic, orexinergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic and GABAergic neurons [ 13 ].
Diet and nutrient intake contribute to insomnia [ 14 ]. The notion that food directly affects sleep is difficult to address, as which diet can boost sleep remains unclear.
We aimed to seek constituents of functional foods promoting sleep by complex interaction between diet and sleep, which may help generate molecular mechanisms for future studies in human beings.
High heritability of insomnia persists except for psychiatric disorders [ 17 ]. Melatonin receptor genes may be associated with insomnia in schizophrenia patients [ 20 ]. PER3 genotype contributed variance in insomnia severity for alcohol-dependent patients [ 22 ].
Opioid receptor mu1 gene is involved in the physiology of heroin and alcohol addiction [ 23 ]. Fatal familial insomnia is a hereditary autosomal-dominant mutation of the prion protein gene by motor disturbances in which the thalamus is a crucial switch [ 24 ].
Chronic sleep deprivation causes the expression of more than genes, which are related to inflammation and immune and stress response [ 25 ]. Sleep duration is genetically regulated by rs and rs that may contribute to the regulation of sleep duration via gene expression [ 26 ].
The molecular mechanisms for the circadian clock regulate sleep such that a novel signaling molecule is mediated via distinct neuronal pathways [ 27 ].
The Loss of Components from whole Grain to Polished Grain Foods are Key Factors that Cause Insomnia GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter and promotes parasympathetic activity for improved sleep, which is a functional food ingredient of safety use [ 29 ].
Some nutrients calcium, potassium and magnesium are associated with improved sleep [ 30 ]. The ion channel subunits contribute to the somatodendritic delayed rectifier, A-type and calcium-activated SK potassium currents, IH, L- and T-type calcium currents in the control of sleep, learning and nervous system disorders [ 32 ].
Ketamine and magnesium association reduces the post-operative morphine consumption after scoliosis surgery, which seems to provide better sleep quality and improves patient satisfaction [ 33 ].
The loss of GABA from brown rice to white rice in the world in was estimated to be 70, tons; The loss of potassium and magnesium as well as calcium from brown rice to white rice in the world in weretons andtons as well as 31, tons, respectively unpublished data.
The loss of potassium and magnesium as well as calcium from whole grains to white flour of wheat in the world in were 4, tons and 1, tons as well astons, respectively unpublished data.
The loss of GABA and other nutrition-related sleep from whole grains to polished grain foods are key factors that cause insomnia.
The poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are more closely related with prediabetes than long sleep duration [ 34 ]. Sleep duration is inversely associated with higher intake of sugar [ 35 ].
Protein and carbohydrate intake in diet is associated with insomnia [ 36 ].
Short sleep duration is associated with increased energy consumption [ 37 ]. The sleep duration is inversely associated with serum leptin and dietary energy intake, while, short sleep contributes to hyperphagia, insulin resistance and obesity [ 38 ].
Excessive caffeine consumption i.the reward systems on employee motivation in Motonet-Espoo. In order to determine what rewards the employees perceive the most motivating and to what extent the em-ployees are ready to increase their work effort, the author used the total reward system.
The information to the study was gathered through a quantitative research questionnaire. The sample job analysis - an example of what to include and how to organize it.
Ultimately you need to know what the person is going to be doing and for the most part, you are doing the job evaluation yourself anyway even with help from a writer or software. Windows operating system 2) MS Office including Word, Excel and PowerPoint.
AECOM Al Futtaim Group Real Estate Al Ain Distribution Company Afghanistan Introduction Management Services (AIMS) Qatar Real Estate Investment Company Alfanar Co.
(KSA) Amana Contracting & Steel. Case study: evaluation and reward system in gasco Case Study: Evaluation and Reward System in Gasco Company from the results of the management performance which used to add to the personal development plans for srmvision.com: case study in performance management Swedish University essays about CASE STUDY IN PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AND REWARD.
The Finance and Commercial Oversight Committee is responsible for oversight of the Company's capital structure, financing and treasury matters and oversight of management's process for the identification, evaluation and mitigation of financial and commercial-related risks to the Company.
performance. Reward management system has a positive and significant effect on employee performance (by the presence of motivation as the mediating variable).
Conclusion: The findings of this survey in the above company show that there is a positive and significant relation among elements of reward management system and motivation and.